- Chapter Intro
- Masonry Flashings
- Cleaners, Repellents, and Coatings
- Long-Term Cladding Performance
- Chapter Intro
- Aesthetic Design Considerations
- Sample Panels and Mock-Ups
- Field Review of Masonry Installations
- Chapter Intro
- Building Enclosure Control Layers
- Water-Shedding Surface
- Water Control Layer
- Air Control Layer
- Shelf Angle Flashing Options
- Exterior Sheathing
- Water Deflection and Drainage
- Structural Considerations
- Veneer Products and Properties
- Quality Assurance and Control
- Chapter Intro
- Governing Energy Codes
- Air Control
- Checklists for Successful Air Barrier Design and Construction
- Thermal Control
- Thermal Control: Energy Conservation Code Requirements
- Determining Wall Assembly U-Factors
- Masonry System Thermal Performance Design Tables
In almost all construction projects, quality control is the responsibility of the general contractor, whereas quality assurance is the responsibility of the design professional, third-party reviewer, or other designated entities.
- Quality Assurance: The Designer of Record or third-party reviewer is responsible for quality assurance during both the design and construction processes. During the project’s design phase, these entities develop standards and procedures to achieve a quality installation; these expectations are compiled into the construction documents. During the construction phase, the quality assurance role includes periodic review of construction to confirm that the installation complies with all aspects of the construction documents. The purpose of quality assurance review is to minimize installations that deviate from the project documents to deliver a high-quality final installation.
- Quality Control: The general contractor and subcontractors are responsible for performing quality control in the field. This entails a more comprehensive review of field work than that provided for by quality assurance. Quality control is the process of repeatedly executing every aspect of the construction in conformance with project documents and entails correcting deficiencies as they arise. The objective of quality control is to ensure all aspects of the final installation meets the project requirements.
Quality control and quality assurance items impact the specification, construction, and evaluation phases of the masonry and its related wall components. Whereas this guide focuses on building enclosure design guidance and product selection of masonry materials, this chapter specifically focuses on recommendations for improving the masonry installation quality through aesthetic design considerations, through sample panels and mock-ups, and through field review of masonry installations.
Aesthetic Design Considerations
Consider the following during a project’s design phase to help develop a masonry wall system that meets the aesthetic expectations of the design and ownership team:
Sample Panels and Mock-Ups
Once the design aesthetic and performance requirements of the above-grade masonry wall system are established, the next quality assurance and quality control item is to demonstrate the masonry installation using sample panels or mock-ups.
Sample panels and mock-ups are a visual representation of the project specification requirements. While not mandatory by code for all projects, this guide recommends sample panels for all masonry buildings as a critical component of quality assurance and quality control. Sample panels and mock-ups establish aesthetic and workmanship quality standards for reference throughout the project’s construction phase, benefiting the project schedule and budget. Sample panels and mock-ups also help to resolve conflicts in work quality, multi-trade coordination, and enclosure performance.
The minimum code requirements for sample panels are described by TMS 602-162 and are dictated by ASCE 7.3 Although code requirements for sample panels may vary per risk category, this guide recommends specifying and constructing a project-specific sample panel and/or a freestanding building enclosure mock-up to promote a quality masonry installation.
This guide outlines three options for specifying and constructing a sample panel and rates them in order of Good, Better, and Best. Table 5-1 summarizes the key attributes of each option. The Good option is based solely on the minimum code requirements of TMS 602-16,2 while the Better option expands on these minimum requirements to include considerations for constructability and aesthetics. The Best option further identifies mock-up characteristics beneficial for aesthetics and building enclosure performance.
Although this guide identifies additional considerations and specifications beyond the minimum code requirements for sample panel specification and construction, it is the discretion of the project owner and/or architect to incorporate any additional aesthetic and/or performance requirements into the project specifications.
A sample panel that remains as part of the final construction may be preferred by builders because it is more economical and typically accessible; however, should the project team find the work is unacceptable, removal of the sample work can damage the structure, enclosure components (e.g. flashing membranes), or other adjacent components. This damage may result in costly repairs or difficulty when reinstalling the sample panel.
The location of building sample panels should be carefully selected by the designer. The location of the sample panel on the building can hinder future accessibility for review or limit the designer’s ability to understand the material aesthetic because it is limited to one location on the project site.
When specifying a sample panel, it is the Designer of Record’s responsibility to reference the sample panel requirements outlined in Specification Section 1.6 D of TMS 602-162 as a baseline in developing sample panel specifications for their project. TMS 602-16 clarifies that the sample panel is to:
- Be constructed from preapproved materials and methods.
- Remain at the project site until the masonry work on the building has been accepted.
- Establish the acceptable standard of work for the masonry construction on the building.
- Be a minimum of 4 feet by 4 feet.
- Demonstrate minimum site tolerances for the construction of the sample panel, as listed in Article 3.3 F of TMS 602-16.2
Submittal Phase Requirements
- A specified number (e.g., 3 to 5) of full-size sample units be provided for each different type of masonry unit, representative of the approximate or full range of colors, textures, and dimensions expected in the completed construction.4
- More than one mortar and surface coating product be ordered for sample panel construction. The final selection for mortar color and surface coatings will be made once several cured samples are on the constructed sample panel.5
- Other accessory materials or products (e.g., reinforcement, anchors, sealants, and flashing membranes) are submitted for review and approved prior to constructing the sample panel. In general, all materials to be installed on the sample panel—except for mortar and surface coatings— must be approved before used in construction.5
- The size, grade, and type of the masonry units (including cell arrangement, where applicable).4
- Product-specific specification for visible masonry accessories such as weeps, including desired color. If a substituted product may be considered, the specifications should contain a clause to address this process.
- Industry standards for the appearance of masonry units. Example standards for brick include ASTM C2166 for facing brick, ASTM C6527 for hollow brick, ASTM C10888 for thin veneer brick, and ASTM C14059 for glazed brick. Example standards for CMU units include ASTM C5510 for concrete building brick, ASTM C9011 for loadbearing CMU, ASTM C12912 for nonloadbearing CMU, and ASTM C163413 for concrete facing brick. Use of industry standards establish the minimum acceptance criteria related to the appearance or aesthetic quality of the masonry upon shipment, including: chippage size and frequency, out-of-square, and warpage/distortion.14
- Mortar joint profiles and tooling methods. This guide recommends concave or V-joint profiles to facilitate water shedding to increase long-term system performance.1
- The minimum-expected level of work. For example, the specifier can require that the mock-up be built by a mason who has a minimum number of years’ experience and who will also be the mason doing the installation work on the larger project.
Material Performance Requirements
Minimum material performance requirements for the type or grade of masonry units, mortar, and other accessories used on a project are based on appropriate industry standards (e.g., ASTM, ANSI, and/or ACI standards). This ensures the products conform to the minimum and latest industry performance standards. Chapters 6 and 7 of this document further describe material performance requirements and reference standards.
This approach provides the benefit of minimum disruption to the building structure if sample panel construction revisions are required. It allows the sample panel to be installed in an easily accessed location for continued reference and subcontractor training throughout the construction phase. The architect may also prefer the sample panel to be located where it is possible to view the panel in various sun exposure or adjacency conditions.
In addition to the minimum submittal and material performance requirements and recommendations listed in the Good option above, additional aesthetic requirements may be incorporated into the project specifications.
The Good and Better options described above are typically limited to 4×4 singular planes of installation; however, the best option recommended by this guide expands the sample panel installation into a larger construction of the full masonry system that requires multi-trade coordination. A full-system mockup can include the components of all the enclosure elements and adjacent or penetrating components, including, but not limited to:
- Windows and/or doors, including rough opening detailing.
- Canopy attachments.
- Embedded flashing and trim elements.
- Expansion, control, and sealant joints.
- Typical penetrations, such as electrical and lighting.
- Balcony and signage attachments.
- Transitions (e.g., roof-to-wall, inside/outside corners, etc.).
- Decorative or special architectural features.
The full-system mock-up incorporates the benefits of sample panel construction while considering adjacency of other building components in addition to the ability to perform building enclosure testing to confirm the performance of the enclosure elements for items such as water penetration resistance and air infiltration/exfiltration.
If a full-system mock-up is chosen, the project specifications need to be comprehensive and include all requirements of the mock-up system and the performance criteria. This guide recommends that the requirements of the mock-up are clear and fully documented prior to the bid phase and that the designer provide dimensioned drawings of the mock-up as part of the contract documents in addition to specifications. These supplementary provisions provide the trades with the adequate information to include an accurate scope of work in their bid documents, including labor and material estimates and the ability to plan for the time and cost of erecting the mockup. 15
Although additional aesthetic requirements, beyond those included with the Better option, are not necessarily included within this option, a mock-up will provide additional aesthetic confirmation for aspects such as masonry transitions at inside and outside corners, shelf angle supports, and transitions to other cladding types or components such as sheet-metal trim and wall penetrations.
Building Enclosure Performance Requirements
When using the Best option, this guide recommends outlining building enclosure-specific performance requirements in the project specifications. Often, the performance level of these requirements is determined with the assistance of the project’s building enclosure consultant.
For a freestanding full-system mock-up, there are numerous qualitative and quantitative tests used to evaluate the air infiltration/exfiltration and water penetration resistance of the building enclosure. Identification of potential leak paths during the mock-up allows for time to review project details or nonconforming work for revision or repair to reduce the risk for water penetration during the actual building service life.
Water penetration resistance testing, as shown in Fig. 5-11, is typically performed using the ASTM E110516 standard at an air pressure differential appropriate for the exposure and wind load on the building enclosure. This test method can identify leakage pathways such as at window rough openings or other penetrations within the primary water control layer of the enclosure.
The designer can also specify air infiltration/exfiltration testing of the building enclosure mock-up and its components including windows and doors. This test is becoming increasingly important where energy code requirements for airtightness are more stringent or energy performance goals are a high priority. An ASTM E78317 test is performed using specialized fan equipment and pressure gauges to determine the rate of air leakage through the mock-up. Using smoke tracers in conformance with ASTM E118618 may also help identify specific air leakage pathways that require rework.
This guide recommends specifying building enclosure performance testing to occur prior to the installation of any masonry veneer but following the installation of all penetrations and air, water, and thermal control layer materials. Although a more stringent test, this approach allows areas of air or water leakage to be readily identified during testing and to still be accessible should repair and/or reinstallation be required.
Field Review of Masonry Installations
The following evaluation items may be performed to ensure aesthetic quality of the masonry components or to ensure that system-specific building enclosure components conform to the project documents. These evaluation items may be performed on the sample panel or mock-up or through the course of construction. The aesthetic review for quality control items listed below apply to all systems in this guide, while building enclosure performance quality control items are provided individually, specific to anchored masonry and single-wythe CMU wall systems.
The items provided do not encompass structural review considerations, because these items extend beyond the scope of this guide; however, these items are equally as important for the long-term durability and safety of the masonry wall system installation.
Aesthetic Review – All Systems
Review and evaluate the sample panel, mock-up, or wall:
Confirm the following when reviewing the sample panel, mockup, or field installation of anchored masonry veneer or singlewythe CMU wall systems:
General Building Enclosure Review – Anchored
Masonry Wall System
The following evaluation items are system-specific to evaluating anchored masonry veneer.
Review and evaluate the sample panel, mock-up, or wall area:
Confirm the following when reviewing the sample panel, mock-up, or any field installation of anchored masonry veneer.
General Building Enclosure Review – Single-Wythe
CMU Wall System
The following evaluation items are system-specific to evaluating single-wythe CMU systems.
Review and evaluate the sample panel, mock-up, or wall:
- National Concrete Masonry Association. TEK 5-16 Aesthetic Design with Concrete Masonry (Herndon, VA: National Concrete Masonry Association, 2011).
- The Masonry Society. TMS-402/602-16 Building Code Requirements and Specification for Masonry Structures (n.p.: The Masonry Society, 2016).
- American Society of Civil Engineers. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, ASCE/SEI 7-10 (Reston, VA: ASCE Press, 2013).
- The Brick Industry Association. Technical Notes 11 Guide Specifications for Brick Masonry, Part 1 (Reston, VA: The Brick Industry Association, 2001).
- Concrete Products Group. “Using Sample Panels to Assure Project Quality.” Last accessed September 19, 2017. Video, 4:30, http://www.concreteproductsgroup.com/index.php/ videos.
- ASTM International. ASTM C216-17 Standard Specification for Facing Brick (Solid Masonry Units Made from Clay or Shale). (West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International, 2017).
- ASTM International. ASTM C652-17 Standard Specification for Hollow Brick (Hollow Masonry Units Made From Clay or Shale). (West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International, 2017).
- ASTM International. ASTM C1088-17 Standard Specification for Thin Veneer Brick Units Made From Clay or Shale (West Conshohocken, PA; ASTM International, 2017).
- ASTM International. ASTM C1405-16 Standard Specification for Glazed Brick (Single Fired, Brick Units). (West Conshohocken, PA; ASTM International, 2016).
- ASTM International. ASTM C55-17 Standard Specification for Concrete Building Brick (West Conshohocken, PA; ASTM International, 2017).
- ASTM International. ASTM C90-16a Standard Specification for Loadbearing Concrete Masonry Units (West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International, 2016).
- ASTM International. ASTM C129-17 Standard Specification for Nonloadbearing Concrete Masonry Units (West Conshohocken, PA; ASTM International, 2017).
- ASTM International. ASTM C1634-17 Standard Specification for Concrete Facing Brick (West Conshohocken, PA; ASTM International, 2017).
- Bronzella Cleveland. “Tech Talk: How To Look At A Brick Wall,” Masonry Magazine, published June 1, 2017, https:// www.masonrymagazine.com/blog/2017/06/01/techtalk-how-to-look-at-a-brick-wall/.
- Alan Esche and Charles W. Ostrander, “Job Site MockUp Panel Qualifies the Bidders,” originally published in MasonryEdge/the StoryPole, n.d., Volume 4, Number 4. Republished by Masonry Advisory Council, last accessed September 19, 2017, http://masonryadvisorycouncil.org/ wp-content/uploads/2016/06/Job-Site-Mock-ups-forBidders.pdf.
- ASTM International. ASTM E1105-15 Standard Test Method for Field Determination of Water Penetration of Installed Exterior Windows, Skylights, Doors, and Curtain Walls, by Uniform or Cyclic Static Air Pressure Difference (West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International, 2015).
- ASTM International. ASTM E783-02 (2010), Standard Test Method for Field Measurement of Air Leakage Through Installed Exterior Windows and Doors (West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International, 2010).
- ASTM International. ASTM E1186-17, Standard Practices for Air Leakage Site Detection in Building Envelopes and Air Barrier Systems (West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International, 2017).